Differential Amplifier using Transistors All op-amps consist of a differential amplifier at their input stage Some capacitors have very low leakage rates and others have very high leakage rates
Assume that the transistors Q1 and Q2 are matched transistors i These film capacitors are used in AC power applications and also used in the high frequency applications

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Since Q1 and Q2 emitters are connected together, the emitter of Q2 also gets pulled up by the positive input at the non-inverting terminal.

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These dielectric capacitors are mainly used in transistor radios, tuning receivers and transmitters
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Tantalum electrolytic capacitors: Here tantalum pent oxide acts as its dielectric
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This frequency can be more accurately calculated if the GB product of the amplifier is known
Sothey can be used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits
This feature makes polypropylene pp capacitors useful in circuits in which operating voltages are typically very high, such aspower amplifiers particularly valve amplifiers, power supply circuits and TV circuits Class 2: These types of capacitors offer high volumetric efficiency for buffer by pass and coupling applications

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The input voltage V DIFF is the difference voltage V 1-V 2.

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The both electrodes of film capacitors may be zinc or metalized aluminium
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, they have equal V BE levels and equal current gains
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Few types of capacitors can charge up to higher voltages such as electrolytic capacitors
The super- capacitor is also known as ultra-capacitor or electric double-layer capacitor Polycarbonate capacitors are the capacitors that have a polycarbonate material as its dielectric
Like resistors, the capacitors are also available in different types in the present markets, which allow us to vary their capacitance value to use in frequency timing type circuits A differential amplifier can be configured in four different ways:• Op-Amp Characteristic Table From the above curve, we can note that the product of gain and frequency is constant at any point along the curve

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The basic op-amp construction is of a three terminal device, excluding power connections.

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Therefore, the bandwidth of an ideal op-amp should be infinite
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Closing the open loop by connecting a resistive or reactive component between the output and one input terminal of the op-amp greatly reduces and controls this open-loop gain
These signals get cancelled, resulting in an output signal zero